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Ash-E-Taa-Na-Quet by J.O. Lewis, 1836

James Otto Lewis. The Aboriginal Portfolio. (Philadelphia: J. O. Lewis, 1835-1836). Small folio (11 x 14") with good margins all around. Lithography by Lehman & Duval. Contemporary hand color.

From the first published collection of portraits of native North Americans. The portfolio consisted of 72 portraits which were made "on the spot and in the field" by James Otto Lewis (1799-1858). Lewis began his work on American natives in 1823 with a portrait of Tens-qua-ta-wa, or the Prophet, which was commissioned by Governor Cass of Michigan. Born in Philadelphia, Lewis moved to St. Louis in 1815 as an actor and engraver. There he met and befriended Chester Harding, a portrait painter amongst whose sitters were some Indians. Harding had made a name for himself with his portrait of Daniel Boone, the only one Boone is known to have sat for. 

In 1822 or 23, Lewis moved to Detroit, where he set up business as a portrait painter. It was there that Lewis received the commission to paint the Prophet. This painting was sent by Governor Cass to Thomas McKenney, head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Cass suggested that Lewis be given $200 from the War Department to paint other Indian chiefs that visited Detroit, to which the impresssed McKenney agreed. Cass asked Lewis to accompany him to Prairie du Chien in 1825, where a treaty was to be negotiated amongst the various mid-western tribes, and where Lewis painted 50 or 60 of the most prominent chiefs. In all Lewis was to accompany Cass to three other treaties, making a unique record of the chiefs who attended.

Some of the portraits that Lewis made were sent to Thomas McKenney, who was planning the publication of a series of prints with likenesses of important Indian chiefs and women. While most of these prints were based on the work of Charles Bird King, Lewis was the original artist for 27 of the 150 prints that were eventually published in McKenney's History of the Indian Tribes of North America. Perhaps inspired by or in competition with McKenney, Lewis also planned such a portfolio of prints. Lewis' Aboriginal Portfolio was to be published in ten monthly parts, beginning in May 1835, each part of which was to contain eight hand colored lithographs and was to be priced at $2.

Unfortunately, the project ran into financial difficulties after the ninth part, and only a few of the tenth part are known to have been published, and of these only five of the eight prints are by Lewis. Even the first nine parts were not issued in great number, and very few complete sets or individual prints have survived. We are thus especially delighted to be able to offer this rarest of American Indian prints, the first published likenesses of the American Indians and unique on the spot illustrations of their vanished civilizations.

Ashetaanaquet was a Chippeway chief who sat for this portrait during the signing of the Treaty of Green Bay in 1827.

Signed in pencil by J. Barincou, who is thought to be the lithographer.

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